Back Length - The dimension on a garment taken from the center collar attaching seam to the bottom of the garment, or in the case of a coverall, to the top of the waistband.
Back Waist Length - The dimension on a body, taken from the top of the back bone at the base of the neck to the waistline.
Backtanning - An After-treatment To Improve The Wet Fastness Of Dyed Or Printed Silk Or Nylon, Using Either Natural Or Synthetic Tanning Agents.
Bactericide - Kills bacteria.
Bacteriostat - Doesn't necessarily mean that it kills bacteria. A stat means that it may simply be slowing growth or holding the death to growth rates of bacteria (same for fungal stats) more or less in equilibrium. Inhibits bacteria growth.
Badla - Flat Metallic Wire, Often Silver-gilt, Used In Brocading And Embroidery.
Baffle - A chamber sewn in an insulated garment or sleeping bag that keeps insulation from shifting and created cold spots.
Baghal Bandi - A Kind Of Tunic Or Jacket, Worn Shorts And Fastened Under The Armpits.
Balabar - An Outer Garment, Worn By Men, Related In Shape To The Coat-like Ashcan
Balaclava - A knit cap that covers the head and neck, leaving a slot for the eyes that can be pulled down, leaving nose and mouth open.
Balagny Cloak - First Half Of 17th Century, Cloak Or Cape With Wide Collar, In France Named After A Military Hero.
Balanced Stripes - A Design Of Stripes That Are Even In Width And Spacing.
Baldrick - (french Bandelier) Sword Hanger, Usually Decorated With Exquisite Embroidery, (often Metal Thread Embroidery) And Worn From The Right Shoulder To The Left Hip, Usually Over The Waistcoat Or Earlier Bolero-style Doublet, But Under The Coat Or Justaucorps. Frequently Worn Over The Coat To Show Off The Embroidery, When The Baldrick Had Become Very Broad And Long. The Sword (rapier, Later Also Dress-sword) Hangs Very Low At The Knees.
Bale Breaker - A Machine Used For Opening Cotton Direct From A Bale. Layers Of Compressed Cotton Are Taken From A Bale And Fed Into A Machine Where The Tearing Action Of Two Coarse Spiked Rollers Moving In Opposite Directions, Produces A More Open Mass Of Tufts.
Bale Dyeing - (1) Dyeing Of Loose Stock ( Usually Synthetic-polymer Fiber ) In The Form Of An Unpacked Bale.,(2) In The USA, A Low Cost Process For Dyeing Cotton Fabric To Produce A Colored Warp And White Weft.
Ballistic - A thick woven fabric that is extremely abrasion resistant and tough; has a denier of about 2000, and is used in apparel, packs and gear.
Ballistics Cloth - A thick nylon weave fabric used as reinforcementin clothing, packs, and luggage. Named for its durable similarity to bulletproof material.
Band (Continuous/Grown-on) - Pant panels that extend to the top of the pant and are folded over without an outside band. A separate inside band lining is sewn through the pant and has an interlining.
Band (Pasted-on/Folder-set) - A separate band sewn on the pant with stitching that shows on the outside at the top and bottom.
Band (Rocap) - A separate band of body fabric sewn on and turned down so the attaching seam is not visible. Inside the band is a separate lining---made from pcketing fabric---and interlining.
Bandanna - A Print Design Characterized By White Or Brightly Colored Motifs On A Dark Or Bright Ground, Most Often Red Or Navy. Done By Discharge Or Resist Printing But Originally Done In India By Tie Dyeing. 2. A Fabric, Usually Cotton With Such A Design.
Bandelier - Baldrick.
Bandhani - A Process Of Patterning Cloth By Tie-dyeing In Which The Design Is Reserved On The Undyed Cloth By Tying Small Spots Very Tightly With Thread To Protect Them From The Dye. Especially Popular In Rajasthan And Gujarat.
Banyan - Name Given In England To Men's Jacket In Indian Cloth. The Term Is Mostly Used For Indoor Garments 'dressing Gowns'.
Barathea - An Indistinct Twill Or Broken Rib- Usually A Twilled Hopsack Weave- With A Fine Textured ,slightly Pebbled Surface . Often Of Silk Or Silk Blended With Wool, Used For Neckties, Women's Fine Suits And Coats Men's And Women's Evening Wear.
Bare Pychon Ka Pyjama - A Pyjama (q. V) With Wide, Flared Legs.
Bark Cloth - Originally Referred To Fabric Made From The Bark Of Trees. Now The Term Is Used To Describe Fabric With A Surface Texture Resembling Tree Bark.
Barras - A Coarse Linen Fabric Similar To Sackcloth; Originally Produced In Holland.
Barré - An imperfection, characterized by a ridge or mark running in the crosswise or lengthwise directions of the fabric. Barrés can be caused by tension variations in the knitting process, poor quality yarns, problems during the finishing process.
Barree - An imperfection, characterized by a ridge or mark running in the crosswise or lengthwise directions of the fabric. Barree can be caused by tension variations in the knitting process, poor quality yarns, problems during the finishing process.
Barrier Fabric - Fabrics That Are Barriers To Dust , Dust Mites And Associated Allergens.
Bartack - To reinforce a seam with a bar of stitches that provides a more durable seam end. (Commonly used at points of strain.)
Bas De Cotte / De Jupe / De Robe - In The Second Half Of The 17th Century This Term Was Used For The Lower Part Of The Petticoat Or Skirt, Which Went With The Petticoat Or Skirt Body, Covered By The Gown Body.
Base Layer - The layer of clothing closest to your skin. A good base layer will regulate your body temperature through physical stops and starts. It'll keep you cool while you hoof up steep switchbacks, and warm when you break for lunch on a windy ridge. It will pull sweat away from your skin, push it through the fabric, and release it into the air. Base layers should be snug for maximum effectiveness. If there's air between your skin and base layer, sweat will stay on your skin until either cold air finds its way in and dries the sweat, leaving you chilled, or you keep sweating until you are literally soaking wet.
Basic Dye - A Cationic Dye Characterized By Its Substantivity For Basic-dyeable Acrylic And Basic-dyeable Polyester Fibers, Especially The Former. The Term Was Originally Applied To Tannin-mordant Cotton Dyes.
Basin Waste; Basineés - The Silk Waste Consisting Of Cocoons That Could Not Be Completely Reeled Because Of Too Frequent Breaks In The Thread.
Basket Stitch - A Knit Construction With Mostly Purl Loops In The Pattern Courses To Give A Basket Weave Look
Basket Weave - A variation of the plain weave construction, formed by treating two or more warp yarns and/or two or more filling yarns as one unit in the weaving process. Yarns in a basket weave are laid into the woven construction flat, and maintain a parallel relationship. Both balanced and unbalanced basket weave fabrics can be produced. Examples of basket weave construction includes monk cloth and oxford cloth.
Basques - Mid-17th Century. French Word For Short Tabs At Bodices And Male Doublets That Extended Below The Waist. Those Jackets With Basques Were Worn In Combination With Skirts Instead Of Gowns.
Bast Fiber - Strong, soft, woody fibers, such as flax, jute, hemp, and ramie, which are obtained from the inner bark in the stems of certain plants.
Batik - A Traditional Indonesian Dyeing Process In Which Portions Of Fabric Are Coated With Wax And Therefore Resist The Dye. The Process Can Be Repeated To Achieve Multi-color Designs. Fabric Usually Has A Veined Appearance Where The Dye Has Gone Through The Cracks In The Wax.
Batiste - 1. A Sheer, Fine, Soft, Light Weight, Plain Weave Fabric Usually Of Combed Cotton Or Polyester/cotton. It Often Has Lengthwise Streaks Due To The Use Of 2 Ply Yarns. Used For Shirts Blouses Dresses Nightwear And Lingerie. 2. A Lightweight Smooth All Wool Fabric. 3.a Sheer Silk Fabric.
Batting - Web.
Bave - The Silk Fiber Complete With Its Natural Gum ( Sericin ) As It Is Withdrawn From A Cocoon. It Is Composed Of Two Brins.
Beaded - Referring To A Fabric Embellished With Beads.
Beading Lace - A Machine Made Lace With A Row Of Openwork Holes Designed For The Insertion Of A Decorative Ribbon.
Beaver Cloth - A High Quality, Heavy, Soft Wool Cloth With A Deep, Smooth Nap. Used In Overcoats.
Bedford Cord - A cord cotton-like fabric with raised ridges in the lengthwise direction. Since the fabric has a high strength and a high durability, it is often used for upholstery and work clothes.
Beet - A Bundle Or Sheaf Of Tied Flax Crop Or Straw.
Beetled - A Finishing Process In Which A Fabric Usually Linen Or Cotton Is Pounded To Produce A Hard Flat Surface With A Sheen.
Beeze - Piping or cording formed at lower and inside pocket welts.
Bellies - The Coarser Quality Of Wool From The Underside Of Sheep.
Bengaline - A Durable Plain Weave Fabric Characterized By Widthwise Cords Formed By Using Fine Warp Yarns And Course Weft Yarns, Used In Dresses, Coats, Suits, Ribbons, Draperies.
Berber - Acrylic pile with tumbled, nubby textured surface with a soft knit backing. Soft, pill-free and long wearing.
Besom - An edging or reinforcement around a pocket opening.
Bias - Any Direction In The Fabric Which Does Not Exactly Flow In The Direction Of The Weft Yarn (vertical Yarns) Or Warp Yarns (horizontal Yarns) Of A Fabric. A True Bias Makes An Angle Of 45 Degree Across The Length And Width Of A Fabric, Fabric Cut On A Bias Has Maximum Stretch.
Bicomponent Fiber - Manufactured fiber made of continuous filaments, and made of two related components, each with different degrees of shrinkage. The result is a crimping of the filament, which makes the fiber stretchable.
Binche Lace - A Lace In Which The Lace Motifs Are Appliquéd To A Machine Made Net Ground. Originally Made In Binche Belgium.
Birdseye - 1. A General Term For A Fabric With A Surface Texture Of Small, Uniform Spots That Suggest Bird's Eyes. Can Be Woven Or Knit. 2 A Design That Suggests A Bird's Eyes.
Birefringence - The Difference Between The Refractive Index Of A Fiber Measured Parallel To The Fiber Axis Nii And That Measured Perpendicular To The Fiber Axis Nl:, Dn = Nii - Nl, Birefringence Is Frequently Used As A Measure Of The Orientation Of The Macromolecules Within The Fiber.
Biscuit - One Of Several Narrow Cylindrical Cheeses Of Yarn Wound As A Composite Package On A Single Former Side By Side But Not Touching. Biscuit Packages Are Used As The Take-up In Some Synthetic-fiber Extrusion Systems.
Bisu - Husks.
Blanket Plaid - A Large Vividly Colored Plaid Design Such As Those Often Found On Blankets.
Blaze - Cocoon Strippings.
Bleached - Chemical Treatment To Remove Impurities And Whiten The Fabric. It Can Be Done Either In Preparation For Dyeing And Finishing Or To Obtain Clean Whites In Finished Fabric.
Bleaching - A process of whitening fibers, yarns, or fabrics by removing the natural and artificial impurities to obtain clear whites for finished fabric, or in preparation for dyeing and finishing. The materials may be treated with chemicals or exposed to sun, air, and moisture.
Bleaching - The Procedure Of Improving The Whiteness Of Textile Material, With Or Without The Removal Of Natural Coloring Matter And/or Extraneous Substances, By A Bleaching Agent.
Bleaching Agent - A Chemical Reagent Capable Of Destroying Partly Or Completely The Natural Coloring Matter Of Textile Fibers, Yarns And Fabrics, And Leaving Them White Or Considerably Lighter In Color. Examples Are Oxidizing And Reducing Agents. Amongst The Former, Hydrogen Peroxide Is Widely Used.
Blend - A term applied to a yarn or a fabric that is made up of more than one fiber. In blended yarns, two or more different types of staple fibers are twisted or spun together to form the yarn. Examples of a typical blended yarn or fabric is polyester/cotton.
Blending - A Process Or Processes Concerned Primarily With Efficient Mixing Of Various Lots Of Fibers. Blending Is Normally Carried Out To Mix Fibers, Which May Be Of Different Physical Properties, Market Values, Or Colors.
Blinding - A Marked And Undesirable Loss Of Lustre Of Fibers Caused By Wet Processing.
Blister Fabric - Cloque.
Blitz - A Light To Medium Weight Woven Fabric With A Filament Warp And Spun Weft. Often Has A Very Fine Crosswise Rib. Common Blends Are Acetate/rayon And Polyester/rayon.
Block Copolymer - A Copolymer In Which The Repeating Units In The Main Chain Occur In Blocks, E.g.,-(a)m-(b)n-(a)p-(b)q- ,where A And B Represent The Repeating Units.
Block Printed - A Hand Printing Method Using Wood, Metal, Or Linoleum Blocks. The Design Is Carved On The Blocks , One Block For Each Color. The Dye Is Applied To The Block Which Is Pressed Or Hammered Against The Fabric.
Blotch Print - Refers To A Print In Which A Large Area Of Uniform Color Is Printed. The Printed Ground Is Referred To As The Blotch.
Blowing Room - The Room In A Cotton Spinning Mill Where The Preparatory Processes Of Opening, Cleaning And Blending Are Carried Out.
Bobbin Lace - A Handmade Lace Using A Pillow To Hold Pins Around Which Thread Is Intertwined. Bobbins Are Used To Hold And Feed The Thread. Also Called Pillow Lace Or Bobbinet.
Boiled Wool -Felted knitted wool, it offers the flexibility of a knit with great warmth. Create your own by washing double the needed amount of 100% wool jersey in hot water and drying in a hot dryer. Expect 50% shrinkage. Appropriate for jackets, vests and stuffed animals.
Boiling Off - See Degumming.
Boll - A Seed Case And Its Contents, As Of Cotton Or Flax.
Bolt - Piece.
Bonded - A Fabric Composed Of 2 Or More Layers Joined Together With An Adhesive ,resin, Foam, Or Fusible Membrane.
Bonding - The technique of permanently joining together two fabrics or layers of fabrics together by a bonding agent into one package. The bonding of fibers in a single layer of material is called a web. Special adhesives, binders, or thin slices of foam may be used as the marrying agent.
Bonnet - Ladies' Headdress Covering The Back Of The Head And Having The Brim In Funnel Form To Shade The Face.
Book - A Parcel Of Hanks Of Raw Silk Whose Total Mass Is Usually 2 Kg.
Boot-hose - In The First Half Of The 17th Century, Stockings Usually Without Feet Worn In The Soft Fashionable Boots With Turned Cup-shaped Tops ("bucket"-tops). The Lace-edge Of The Boot-hose Is Turned Over The Boot-tops. ("cavalier"-style). They Were Worn Over The Silk Stockings To Protect Them In The Long Boots.
Border - A Design Placed Along The Edge Of The Fabric Or Engineered In Such A Way That It Will Fall On The Edge Of The Finished Product. Border Designs Are Frequently Used In Skirts And Dresses.
Botanical - Referring To Designs Dominated By Motifs Depicting Plant Life.
Botany Wool - A Term Applied To Tops, Yarns And Fabrics Made From Merino Wool. The Term Originated From Botany Bay In Australia.
Boucle - A knit or woven fabric made from a rough, curly, knotted boucle yarn. The fabric has a looped, knotted surface and is often used in sportswear and coats.
Bourdalou - Hat-ribbon, Finer Than Grosgrain, Round The Foot Of The Crown Of Hats. This Trimming Is Sometimes Finished Off With A Buckle And Has Been In Use Since The 17th Century.
Bourdon Lace - A Machine Made Lace On A Mesh Ground Usually In A Scroll Design Outlined With A Heavy Cord.
Bourette - A Fancy Plied Yarn With Nubs And Knots Of Another Color.
Bourrelet - A Double Knit Fabric With A Rippled , Corded Texture Running Horizontally.
Bow-string Hemp - Sansevieria.
Brandenburg Coat - Fourth Quarter Of 17th Century, A Loose Overcoat With Turned-back Cuffs. The Sleeves Are Made In One With The Rest Of The Garment.
Break - Point on the front edge of the garment at which the roll of the lapel begins. Usually at the same point as the lower end of the bridle.
Breaking - The Deformation Of The Plant Structure By Flattening The Stem, Loosening The Bond Between The Fiber Bundles And The Wood, And Breaking The Woody Part Into Short Pieces, To Facilitate Their Removal From The Fiber By Scutching. Breaking By Means Of Rollers Is Often Referred To As Rolling.
Breaking Length - The Length Of A Specimen Whose Weight Is Equal To The Breaking Load.
Breaking Load; Breaking Force - The Load That Develops The Breaking Tension. The Recommended Unit Of Measurement Is The Newton.
Breaking Stress - The Maximum Stress Developed In A Specimen Stretched To Rupture. The Force Is Usually Related To The Area Of The Unstrained Specimen. If The Actual Stress, Defined In Terms Of The Area Of The Strained Specimen, Is Used, Then Its Maximum Value Is Called The Actual Breaking Stress.
Breaking Tension - The Maximum Tension Developed In A Specimen Stretched To Rupture. It Is Correctly Expressed In Newton's.
Breathability - The movement of water or water vapor from one side of the fabric to the other, caused by capillary action, wicking, chemical, or electrostatic action. Also known as moisture transport.
Breathable - A material's ability to allow sweat vapors to escape from the inside of the fabric.
Breathable Coated - Refers To A Coating That Repels Water But Allows Water Vapor (thus Perspiration) To Pass Through, Allowing Garments To Be Comfortable And Waterproof . Used In Garments For Active Wear And Winter Sports.
Breton Lace - Lace Embroidered On An Open Net With Heavy Often Brightly Colored Yarn. May Be Made By Hand Or Machine. Said To Have Originated In The Breton Region Of France.
Bright - Descriptive Of Textile Materials, Particularly Man-made Fibers, The Natural Lustre Of Which Has Not Been Substantially Reduced. Bright May Denote The Presence Of A Very Small Amount Of Delustrant, Insufficient To Reduce The Lustre Of The Fiber Significantly.
Brightening Agent - Optical Brightner.
Brin - A Single Filament Of Silk Resulting From The Degumming Of The Bave Withdrawn From The Cocoon.
Broad Spectrum Antimicrobial - An antimicrobial that effectively controls or kills at least 3 of the basic microorganism groups. This term is important to help give a specific encompassing term to technologies that offer protection from the gamut of microorganisms, without the sometimes vague nature of the term antimicrobial, which could mean kills just one type or kills many types.
Broadcloth - A plain weave tightly woven fabric that is usually made from 100% cotton or a cotton blend. Characterized by a slight ridge effect in one direction. It resembles poplin and is used extensively in quilts, shirts and blouses, as well as home decorating.
Brocade - A Heavy Rich- Looking Jacquard Fabric With Contrasting Surfaces Or A Multicolor Design . Used In Upholstery , Draperies Evening Wear.
Brocade - A heavy, exquisite jacquard type fabric with an all-over raised pattern or floral design. Common end-uses include such formal applications as upholstery, draperies, and eveningwear.
Brocatelle - A Jacquard Fabric Similar To Brocade With The Design In A Raised Appearance From Being Formed With A Satin Or Twill Weave. Used In Draperies And Upholstery.
Broken Twill - A General Term For Twill Weave Fabrics In Which The Twill Line Changes Direction.
Brushed - Napped knit or woven fabrics of wool, cotton or synthetics. Different from pile, which is formed by adding extra yarn.
Brushed/napped - A Finishing Process To Raise A Nap On Surface Of The Fabric Using Wire Brushes Or Other Abrasive Materials.
Brushing - A finishing process for knit or woven fabrics in which brushes or other abrading devices are used on a loosely constructed fabric to permit the fibers in the yarns to be raised to create a nap on fabrics or create a novelty surface texture.
Brushstroke - Refers To A Print Style In Which Color Looks As If It Had Been Applied With A Brush.
Brussels Lace - May Be A Bobbin Or Needlepoint Lace Usually On A Machine Made Ground. Sometimes Designs Are Appliquéd On The Ground. As Brussels Belgium Is Important In The History Of Lace-making, Many Different Types Of Lace Are Called Brussels Lace.
Buckram - A Stiff , Open Weave, Coarse Fabric Often Used As An Interlining To Give A Garment Shape. Also Used In Hats, Bookbinding.
Buckskin - A Heavy Satin Weave Fabric, Often Of Fine Merino Wool, With A Smooth Face
Buffalo Check - A Bold Check Pattern With Blocks Of 2 Or 3 Contrasting Colors. Often Red And Black In A Twill Weave.
Bulked Yarn - A Yarn That Has Been Treated Mechanically, Physically Or Chemically So As To Have A Noticeably Greater Voluminosity Or Bulk.
Bunch - The Aggregate Of Pieces, Which Are Tied Up With Two Or More Ties Preparatory To Baling.
Bunting - Can be either a cotton or wool fabric, woven in a plain open weave, similar to cheesecloth, and dyed in the piece. Cotton bunting is often woven with plied yarns. Wool bunting is woven with worsted worsted yarns, using strong, wiry wool.
Burl - A Wool Trade Term For An Imperfection.
Burlap - A loosely constructed, heavy weight, plain weave fabric used as a carpet backing, and as inexpensive packaging for sacks of grain or rice. Also, as fashion dictates, burlap may also appear as a drapery fabric.
Burlap/Hessian - A Coarse Open Fabric Made Of Jute Used For Upholstery Lining And Bagging . When Dyed Or Printed It Is Used In Drapery, Wall Coverings, Upholstery.
Burn Out - A Fabric Made Of 2 Fibers Then Printed With A Chemical That Dissolves One Of The Fibers Thus Creating A Design .often Done On Velvet.
Burn-out - A brocade-like pattern effect created on the fabric through the application of a chemical, instead of color, during the burn-out printing process. (Sulfuric acid, mixed into a colorless print paste, is the most common chemical used.) Many simulated eyelet effects can be created using this method. In these instances, the chemical destroys the fiber and creates a hole in the fabric in a specific design, where the chemical comes in contact with the fabric. The fabric is then over-printed with a simulated embroidery stitch to create the eyelet effect. However, burn-out effects can also be created on velvets made of blended fibers, in which the ground fabric is of one fiber like a polyester, and the pile may be of a cellulosic fiber like rayon or acetate. In this case, when the chemical is printed in a certain pattern, it destroys the pile in those areas where the chemical comes in contact with the fabric, but leave the ground fabric unharmed.
Burn-out Velvet - Created from two different fibers, the velvet is removed with chemicals in a pattern leaving the backing fabric intact. Appropriate for more unconstructed and loosely fit garments.
Burry Wool - Wool Contaminated With Vegetable Impurities Adhering To The Fleece.
Buta - Literally, "a Plant". A Floral Motif, Derived Generally From Persian Sources, Much Used In Indian Textile Design, And Traditionally Rendered As A Flowering Plant With A Curling Bud At The Top. The Motif Is Also Sometimes Reduced To A Floral Pattern Designed Within The Form Of The Plant.
Butcher's Linen - A Strong, Heavy, Plain Weave Linen Fabric With Uneven, Thick And Thin Yarns In Both Warp And Weft - Often Used In Tablecloths And Aprons.
Buti - A Diminutive Of Buta (q.v.), Very Commonly Used In Indian Textile Design.
Butt - To Level The Root Ends Of Flax Straw At Any Stage Of Processing By Vibrating It Upright On A Flat Surface, Either By Hand Or Mechanically.
Buttonhole (eyelet) - Formed by a contoured patch of zig-zag stitching, followed by a cut---a portion of which is circular. Eyelet buttonholes are usually used on heavy fabrics and/or with large buttons. A gimp or cord is usually contained within the stitches to provide a reinforcement along the edge of the hole.
Buttonhole (straight) - Formed by two pairs of straight, parallel rows of zigzag stitching, followed by a single, straight knife cut. Each end of the row of stitching is secured by a bartack.
Buttons - Specified by design, size, color, and type---such as brass, melamine, or pearl, buttons are either shanked (attached by passing threads through the shank's eye) or holed (attached by passing threads through the button's holes).